This is my 7th year participating in the A to Z Challenge. In the 2015 challenge, I wrote about the Cleages formerly enslaved on the plantations of Samuel and his sons Alexander and David Cleage of Athens, McMinn County, Tennessee. Most of the people in these posts are not related to me by blood or DNA, however my ancestors were enslaved on the same plantations with them.
This year I ordered the Civil War Pension files of the Cleage men who served in 1st Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery (USCHA), during that war. Through these files I learned that their lives were much richer and more complex than census, death and other records can show. I am using the information from pension files and records that I found through the files for this years challenge.
Today I will share some information and a few newspaper articles about Sallie Idena Cleag, Abram and Amanda‘s only surviving daughter.
Sarah Idena Cleage was born in 1876 near Austin, Texas. She was named after her grandmother Sallie Cleage Marsh. She learned to read and write, something her parents never did, and moved to Los Angeles, California with them in 1888 when she was twelve years old. Two years later, at 14 she married Richard Pierce, a house painter nine years older than she was. They had a daughter, Avalon, when she was 18 and a year later she gave birth to a stillborn son.
The family continued to live with Abram and Amanda. Their relationship was a troubled one, more than troubled. Twice husband Richard took shots at men Sarah was intimately involved with. They were finally divorced. Sarah left Avalon to be raised by her parents and went to San Francisco, where she died in the earthquake of 1906.
This is my 7th year participating in the A to Z Challenge. In the 2015 challenge, I wrote about the Cleages formerly enslaved on the plantations of Samuel and his sons Alexander and David Cleage of Athens, McMinn County, Tennessee. Most of the people in these posts are not related to me by blood or DNA, however my ancestors were enslaved on the same plantations.
This year I ordered the files of the Cleage men who served in Co. I, 1st Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery (USCHA), during the Civil War. Through these files I learned that their lives were much richer and more complex than census, death and other records can show. I am using the information from pension files and records that I found through the files for this years challenge.
Today’s post takes us back to Amanda Cleage, who appeared in the “A” post. This document was used during her pension hearing to establish that she had divorced her first husband and was the legal wife of Abram Cleage and entitled to a widow’s pension.
Marriages between enslaved people were often looked upon by white people as worthless. And yet, Amanda Cleage and Lon Deadrick were able to obtain a divorce from a “slave” marriage. The contradictions within the system were innumerable.
Deposition D Case of
23rd July, 1909 at Chattanooga, county of Hamilton, Tennessee
I don’t know my age, but I was a young man at emancipation. I am a shoemaker at 602 East 8th Street, Chattanooga, Tennessee.
I lived in Athens, this state until long after emancipation. I married Amanda Cleage there just after emancipation and I was her first husband. Abram Cleage got in between her and me and got her away from me and they afterward went off with old man Tucker to Texas. I don’t know whether Abram and Amanda married or not. If they did marry, it was after they left this state. I know that they didn’t have time to marry while they were here in Chattanooga while on their way to Texas; I came on the same train they did because I heard Amanda was going off to Texas on that train and they were not in Chattanooga more than ten minutes; I went on a distance on the same train.
I don’t know that Abram had any wife before he went off with Amanda Cleage. In slavery he went with a brown skinned woman named Emma. I don’t know what became of her and I didn’t know him to have anything to do with her after he came out of the army.
I understood the foregoing as it was read by the examiner, and it is correct.
Lon (his mark X) Deadrick.
Attest – J. A. Johnson Charles Smith
Amanda Deadrick Vs. Lon Deadrick: This cause coming on this 21st day of December 1867 before the Hon. William L. Adams Judge & C., to be finally heard and determined, upon the bill of Complaint answer of respondent and proof of witnesses introduced in open court from all which it appearing to the court that the cruel and inhuman treatment of the defendant towards the complainant – acts of personal violence, threat and abuse have been such that the complainant is entitled to the relief prayed for in her bill – that it is unsafe for her to cohabit and live with him as a wife. It is therefore adjudged and decreed by the Court that the bonds of matrimony heretofore subsisting between the complainant and respondent to be and the same are hereby dissolved, declared null and void and for nothing held. That the complainant be restored to all her rights of a single woman and to her maiden name Amanda Cleage; that she retain possession of their child. Deadrick according to law, that the complainant and William H. Howard her security in the prosecution bond in this case pay the cost of this cause in the final instance and that the complainant have judgment over against the respondent for the costs aforesaid for all which execution may issue.
Wm L. Adams Judge presiding I.J.E. Tuell clerk of the Circuit Court McMinn C. Tenn.
Hereby certify the foregoing to be a true copy of the divorce in the foregoing case as same appears of record in my office this 22 day July AD. 1909 J.E. Tuell Clerk
Today begins the 2015 A-Z Challenge. This year I will be writing a series of sketches about those formerly enslaved on the Cleage plantations in Athens Tennessee. Most are not related to me by blood. Our families came off of the same plantations – those of Samuel, Alexander and David Cleage, but were not blood relatives. Enlarge images by clicking on them.
Abraham Cleage was born into slavery in about 1838 in McMinn County, Tennessee. By 1864, the Union troops were in control of Eastern Tennessee. Abraham left slavery and enlisted with the United States Colored Troops Heavy Artillary Unit in Knoxville, TN on July 4, 1864. His enlistment papers described him as 5 ft 7 in with black hair, black eyes and a dark complexion. On March 31, 1866, he was mustered out in Chattanooga, TN. He had $42.15 due him.
Amanda Cleage was born about 1837. She and her parents, Clinton and Sallie, were slaves on David Cleage’s plantation in McMinn County. Abraham and Amanda married in 1870. Reconstruction was over. With it’s end came the rise in lynchings, Jim Crow laws legalizing segregation in trains, street cars, restaurants, waiting rooms and schools. The right to vote was stolen through the use the poll tax, literacy tests, grandfather clauses and property ownership requirements.
Not long after their marriage the couple moved west to Austin, Travis County, Texas. It is likely that they took a train. There was a train station in Athens and tracks connected all the way to Texas. Their daughter Sarah was born there in 1876. In 1880 Abraham was working as a laborer. In addition to their family, the household included a border, Richard Cleage, age 21. There is a Richard Cleage, same age, who appears in the 1880 census back in Athens with two children born in Texas.
They lived in Austin from at least 1876, when their daughter was born, until they appear in the Los Angeles City Directory in 1888. Abraham worked as a laborer. Amanda kept house.
They would have participated in the local Juneteenth Celebrations. “Although news of emancipation came at different times during that Texas summer and autumn 1865, local blacks gradually settled on June 19 (Juneteenth) as their day of celebration. Beginning in 1866 they held parades, picnics, barbecues, and gave speeches in remembrance of their liberation. By 1900 the festivities had grown to include baseball games, horse races, street fairs, rodeos, railroad excursions, and formal balls. Two distinct trends emerged with these early celebrations. First the oldest of the surviving former slaves were often given a place of honor. That place of honor rose in direct proportion to the dwindling numbers of survivors with each passing year. Secondly, African Americans in Texas initially used these gatherings to locate missing family members and soon they became staging areas
In 1888 the family relocated to Los Angeles, California where Abraham registered to vote and continued to work as a laborer. In 1893 he filed for his pension as an invalid. Amanda was not working outside of the home during these years. By 1900, they owned their own home, with a mortgage. Abraham could neither read or write. Amanda could read but not write. Abraham was 62. Amanda was getting younger with each passing census and was enumerated as 48, although she was closer to 60. She had given birth to 2 children and both were alive. I can only name one, Sarah, who was 24 and married to Richard Pierce, a carpenter who had been unemployed for 5 months during the past year. Sarah had given birth to 2 children but only 1, 6 year old Evelyn was living. Sarah and Richard could read and write. They were all living with Abraham and Amanda.
Abraham died on April 14, 1908. He is buried in the Long Beach Municipal Cemetery. Although I found his information in several death indices, I have not found a death certificate and so do not know how he died. Amanda began to receive her widow’s pension the following month.
By 1910 only one of Amanda’s children was still living. I cannot find Sarah anywhere, I assume she died. Sarah’s husband, Richard Pierce has remarried and is living with his new wife and young daughter. Evelyn, Sarah’s daughter is missing. It is possible she is living with the other living child. Amanda began taking in laundry to support herself.
1916 found Amanda back in Austin, Texas, continuing to take in washing. Perhaps she was working her way back East, because by 1920 she was once again living in Athens Tennessee, on her own and still doing laundry. She gave her age as 58, but she was closer to 83.
On July 22, 1921, Amanda broke her leg, receiving a compound, open, fracture. She was taken to Collins Chapel Hospital in Memphis. Her sister Lydia and her husband Charles lived in Memphis. Amanda may have been visiting or may have moved to Memphis to be closer to her sister. Two weeks later her kidneys failed and she was dead at 84 years. Lydia was the informant on the death certificate.
Amanda Cleage was buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery on August 9, 1921. According to the Tennessee Historical Commission, “Zion Cemetery, comprising 15 acres, was established in 1879 by the United Sons of Zion Association who responded to the need for a respectable burial site for African Americans.” As time passed and the original founders died, there was no organization to continue caring for the cemetery and it became seriously overgrown until it was impossible to find the graves. In the last several years improvements have been made and 5 acres have been restored. Work is still progressing. The 3 minute video below tells the story.
I gathered this information from census records, death records, city directories at Ancestry.com, FamilySearch.com and other above mentioned online sources.